One can readily discover, for example, how long it takes to construct a pontoon bridge under given conditions with given manpower, and this data can then generate norms for expected performance under similar conditions in the future, or serve to refine the bridge-building process. Any form of training can be regarded as a "simulation" in the strictest sense of the word inasmuch as it simulates an operational environment ; however, many if not most exercises take place not to test new ideas or models, but to provide the participants with the skills to operate within existing ones. Full-scale military exercises, or even smaller-scale ones, are not always feasible or even desirable. Availability of resources, including money, is a significant factor—it costs a lot to release troops and materiel from any standing commitments, to transport them to a suitable location, and then to cover additional expenses such as petroleum, oil and lubricants POL usage, equipment maintenance, supplies and consumables replenishment and other items.
This is the universe at its most fundamental. So an interesting pursuit is to simulate quantum chromodynamics on a computer to see what kind of complexity arises.
The promise is that simulating physics on such a fundamental level is more or less equivalent to simulating the universe itself. There are one or two challenges of course. The physics is mind-bogglingly complex and operates on a vanishingly small scale.
That may not sound like much but the significant point is that the simulation is essentially indistinguishable from the real thing at least as far as we understand it. A region just a few micrometres across could encapsulate the entire workings of a human Simulation paper two.
Again, the behaviour of this human cell would be indistinguishable from the real thing. If so, is there any way we could ever know? Today, we get an answer of sorts from Silas Beane, at the University of Bonn in Germany, and a few pals.
They say there is a way to see evidence that we are being simulated, at least in certain scenarios. The problem with all simulations is that the laws of physics, which appear continuous, have to be superimposed onto a discrete three dimensional lattice which advances in steps of time.
The question that Beane and co ask is whether the lattice spacing imposes any kind of limitation on the physical processes we see in the universe.
They examine, in particular, high energy processes, which probe smaller regions of space as they get more energetic What they find is interesting. They say that the lattice spacing imposes a fundamental limit on the energy that particles can have.
So if our cosmos is merely a simulation, there ought to be a cut off in the spectrum of high energy particles. But Beane and co calculate that the lattice spacing imposes some additional features on the spectrum.
But the calculations by Beane and co are not without some important caveats. One problem is that the computer lattice may be constructed in an entirely different way to the one envisaged by these guys.
Another is that this effect is only measurable if the lattice cut off is the same as the GZK cut off.the International Building Performance Simulation Association, is a non-profit international society of building performance simulation researchers, developers and practitioners, dedicated to improving the built environment.
Principles of Flight Simulation is a comprehensive guide to flight simulator design, covering the modeling, algorithms, and software which underpin flight simulation.
The texture-related shape anisotropy of cup drawn metallic sheet parts is referred to as earing or ear formation. It is a characteristic phenomenon associated with the crystallographic texture and the resulting elastic-plastic anisotropy of metals. Over each subsequent interview period more and more of the sample dropped out of the study leaving only % who completed the full study.
That said, the study is detailed with hundreds of difficult and intrusive questions that tolerant students responded to.
The two main families of simulation technique are molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC); addition- ally, there is a whole range of hybrid techniques which combine features from both.
This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement.
Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence.