Ethics[ edit ] Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative: Sittlichkeit Ethics also known as moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy which addresses questions of morality. The word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality,' and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Selection of the Research Paradigm and Methodology Dr. In doing so, it deals with educational questions that can be investigated in a satisfactory manner, and the methods which enable such satisfactory investigation and the utility of results emanating from such investigation Ethnomethodology experiment, Since theoretical questions in education emerge from different conceptions and interpretations of social reality, different paradigms have been evolved to determine the criteria according to which one would select and define problems for inquiry.
During the past century, different paradigms have taken birth due to the remarkable growth in social sciences research. There are mainly two paradigms to the verification of theoretical propositions, i.
Positivism The positivist paradigm of exploring social reality is based on the philosophical ideas of the French philosopher August Comte, who emphasized observation and reason as means of understanding human behaviour. According to him, true knowledge is based on experience of senses and can be obtained by observation and experiment.
Positivistic thinkers adopt his scientific method as a means of knowledge generation. Hence, it has to be understood within the framework of the principles and assumptions of science.
These assumptions, as Conen et al noted, are determinism, empiricism, parsimony, and generality. With these assumptions of science, the ultimate goal of science is to integrate and systematise findings into a meaningful pattern Ethnomethodology experiment theory which is regarded as tentative and not the ultimate truth.
Theory is subject to revision or modification as new evidence is found. Positivistic paradigm thus systematizes the knowledge generation process with the help of quantification, which is essential y to enhance precision in the description of parameters and the discernment of the relationship among them.
The examples of positivist paradigm and quantitative approach are provided in Table 1 at the end. Although positivistic paradigm continued to influence educational research for a long time in the later half of the twentieth century, it was criticized due to its lack of regard for the subjective states of individuals.
It regards human behaviour as passive, controlled and determined by external environment. Hence human beings are dehumanized without their intention, individualism and freedom taken into account in viewing and interpreting social reality.
According to the critics of this paradigm, objectivity needs to be replaced by subjectivity in the process of scientific inquiry.
This gave rise to anti-positivism or naturalistic inquiry. Anti-positivism Anti-positivism emphasizes that social reality is viewed and interpreted by the individual herself according to the ideological positions she possesses. Therefore, knowledge is person all y experienced rather than acquired from or imposed from outside.
The anti-positivists believe that reality is multi-layered and complex Cohen et al, and a single phenomenon is having multiple interpretations. They emphasize that the verification of a phenomenon is adopted when the level of understanding of a phenomenon is such that the concern is to probe into the various unexplored dimensions of a phenomenon rather than establishing specific relationship among the components, as it happens in the case of positivism.
Anti-positivism is marked by three schools of thought in the social science research. These are phenomenology, ethnomethodology and symbolicinteractionism. All the three schools of thought emphasise human interaction with phenomena in their daily lives, and suggest qualitative rather than quantitative approach to social inquiry.
It rules out any kind of objective external reality. Husserl and Schutz are the main proponents of this school of thought.
During interaction with various phenomena, human beings interpret them and attach meanings to different actions and or ideas and thereby construct new experiences.
Therefore, the researcher has to develop empathic understanding to know the process of interpretation by individuals so that she can reproduce in her mind feelings, motives and thoughts that are behind the action of others.
It deals with the world of everyday life. According to enthomethodologists, theoretical concerns centres around the process by which common sense reality is constructed in everyday face-to-face interaction. They are mainly interested in the interpretation people use to make sense of social settings.
UNDP works to eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities through the sustainable development of nations, in more than countries and territories. Module: Selection of the Research Paradigm and Methodology. Dr. Nirod K. Dash, IGNOU. Educational research is essentially concerned with exploring and understanding social phenomena which are educational in nature, mainly pertaining to formalized and/or spontaneously occurring social, cultural, psychological processes which could be termed as education. Transcript of Ethnomethodology Experiments What is the meaning of ethnomethodology? Ethnomethodology is a theoretical approach in sociology based on the belief that you can discover the normal social order of a society by disrupting it.
It basic all y emphasizes the understanding and interpretation of interactions that take place between human beings.Abstract. Policy interventions that affect or are mediated through the family typically assume a behavioural response.
Policy analyses proceeding from different disciplinary bases may come to quite different conclusions about the effects of policies on families, . Nov 09, · Harold Garfinkel - Ethnomethodology and Breaching Experiment Ethnomethodology and breaching experiment - blog entry 1: Harold Garfinkel (October 29, – April 21, ) was a ethnomethodologist, sociologist and a professor at the University of California.
Also Called. Science Mastery Scientikinesis Super-Science Manipulation Capabilities. Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is the ability to be intellectual and the practical activity of encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.
Science has been known as the only true way to acquire. The Thunderbird Myth This article has been reproduced here by the generous permission of Richard Thompson, webmaster of the Super Coupe Club Of America.. Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest have many narratives about Thunderbird, a guardian spirit .
The Department of Afro-American Studies is committed to bringing academic research to the broadest possible audience, within and beyond the walls of the university.
The department believes that the deepest understanding of the complex reality of race in America requires a truly interdisciplinary approach, one that draws on history and literature, the social sciences and the arts.
Symbolic Interactionism Theory and the Ground of Routine Activities: Ethnomethodology as Portrayed by Harold Garfinkel and Herbert Blumer - He recognizes four main central conceptions about symbolic interactionism crucial to understanding his propositions.